10 Gothic cathedrals of medieval Europe.
Gothic cathedrals are not religious buildings of the ancient Goths, but temples built in the Gothic style of architecture. This architectural style appeared in France in the 12th century, it replaced the Romanesque style.
Gothic architecture spread throughout Western Europe and continued to develop until the 16th century. With the advent of the Renaissance, the Gothic style began to lose its importance. The Gothic style is best shown in the architecture of cathedrals, churches and monasteries. The Gothic style is characterized by narrow and high towers, pointed arches, columns, multicolored stained glass windows and an ornate facade. Sculpture is an integral part of Gothic art. The grim figures of gargoyles and mythical creatures were a particularly frequent decoration on the walls. The combination of iridescent stained glass windows, magnificent patterns and stone sculptures of figures create an inimitable ensemble.
Gothic covers various works of art: painting, fresco, stained glass, sculpture, book miniatures, and many others. But as already mentioned, it is the medieval cathedrals of Europe that fully demonstrate the beauty and grandeur of the Gothic style. They will be discussed below.
10 Gothic cathedrals-PHOTO.
- St. Stephen’s Cathedral. Vienna, Austria.
St. Stephen’s Cathedral, located in the heart of Vienna, has survived many wars and is now a symbol of the city’s freedom. The Gothic cathedral stands on the ruins of the two previous churches. Its construction was largely initiated in the 14th century by Duke Rudolf IV of Austria. And the most recognizable characteristic of the cathedral-the tiled roof with the image of the national coat of arms and the coat of arms of the city of Vienna, was added only in 1952.
- Burgos Cathedral. Burgos, Spain.
The Cathedral of Burgos (Burgos Cathedral) is a medieval cathedral in the city of the same name, dedicated to the Virgin Mary. It is famous for its huge size and unique Gothic architecture. Construction of the cathedral began in 1221, and after a long break of almost two centuries, it was completed in 1567. In 1919, the cathedral became the burial place of the national hero of Spain Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar (El Cid Campeador) and his wife Jimena Diaz.
- Reims Cathedral. Reims, France.
Reims Cathedral is the place where numerous French monarchs were officially crowned. It is built on the site of the basilica, where once (approximately 496 year) Saint Remy was baptized by Clovis I – one of the greatest politicians of his time. The construction of the cathedral was completed by the end of the 13th century.
- Milan Cathedral. Milan, Italy.
The exceptionally large and complex Gothic cathedral in Milan’s main square is one of the most famous buildings in Europe. It is one of the largest Gothic cathedrals in the world. Construction began in 1386 under the patronage of Archbishop Antonio da Saluzzo in a late Gothic style more typical of France than Italy. Five centuries passed before the construction was completed.
- Seville Cathedral. Seville, Spain.
Located on the site of the majestic Almohada Mosque, the medieval cathedral was built to showcase the power and wealth of Seville after a long process of Reconquista. At the time of its completion in the 16th century, it supplanted Hagia Sophia as the largest in the world. The builders used some columns and elements of the former mosque. The most famous is the Giralda-a tower with rich patterns and ornaments, formerly a minaret, and converted into a bell tower.
Hotels and hostels: Seville.
- York Minster. York, England.
One of the two largest Gothic cathedrals in Northern Europe (along with Cologne Cathedral in Germany). York Minster rises above the horizon in the ancient city of the same name and includes all the stages of Gothic architectural development in England. Construction of the existing building began around 1230 and was completed in 1472. The cathedral is famous for its largest medieval stained glass windows.
- Notre-Dame Cathedral. Paris, France.
Notre Dame de Paris is a beautiful Catholic cathedral in the fourth arrondissement of Paris. Construction, begun in 1163, was completed only in 1345. One of the most famous French Gothic cathedrals, Notre-Dame de Paris is an excellent example of French Gothic architecture, sculpture and stained glass. During the French Revolution in 1790, most of the sculptures and treasures were destroyed and looted. And yet, on December 2, 1804, Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned emperor here.
- Cologne Cathedral. Cologne, Germany.
Cologne Cathedral (Cologne Cathedral) is the most famous symbol of the city for many centuries. Its height is 157.4 meters. The famous cathedral stands on the site where a Roman temple was located in the 4th century. The construction of the Gothic cathedral began in 1248 and was carried out intermittently for more than 600 years. The cathedral is dedicated to Saints Peter and Mary and is the main church of the Archdiocese of Cologne.
- Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore. Florence, Italy.
The Gothic-style construction, which began in 1296, was completed in 1436. The Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore is a symbol of the city and one of the most beautiful buildings in Florence. The exterior walls of the basilica are remarkable, lined with beautiful marble panels of various shades: green, white, pink. And also impressive is the huge brick dome.
- Chartres Cathedral. Chartres, France.
Chartres Cathedral is located in the city of the same name near Paris. Its advantage, in addition to being one of the best examples of French high Gothic, is that it is almost perfectly preserved. Most of the original stained glass windows of the cathedral remain intact, while the architecture has seen only minor changes since the early 13th century.